101. Biol Lett. 2013 Feb 27;9(2):20130044. doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2013.0044. Print 2013 Apr
Haase D(1), Roth O, Kalbe M, Schmiedeskamp G, Scharsack JP, Rosenstiel P, Reusch
(1)Evolutionary Ecology of Marine Fishes, Helmholtz-Centre for Ocean Research
Kiel (GEOMAR), 24105 Kiel, Germany.
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mediated adaptive immune system is the
hallmark of gnathostome immune defence. Recent work suggests that cod-like fishes
(Gadidae) lack important components of the MHC class II mediated immunity. Here,
we report a putative independent loss of functionality of this pathway in another
species, the pipefish Syngnathus typhle, that belongs to a distantly related fish
family (Syngnathidae). In a deep transcriptome sequencing approach comprising
several independent normalized and non-normalized expressed sequence tag (EST)
libraries with approximately 7.5 × 10(8) reads, sequenced with two next
generation platforms (454 and Illumina), we were unable to identify MHC class
IIα/β genes as well as genes encoding associated receptors. Along with the recent
findings in cod, our results suggest that immune systems of the Euteleosts may be
more variable than previously assumed.
PMID: 23445951 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
102. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013 Oct;79(19):5830-43. doi: 10.1128/AEM.00538-13. Epub
2013 Jul 19.
Ulrich RL(1), Deshazer D, Kenny TA, Ulrich MP, Moravusova A, Opperman T, Bavari
S, Bowlin TL, Moir DT, Panchal RG.
(1)Integrated Toxicology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute
of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Fort Detrick, Maryland, USA.
The bacterial SOS response is a well-characterized regulatory network encoded by
most prokaryotic bacterial species and is involved in DNA repair. In addition to
nucleic acid repair, the SOS response is involved in pathogenicity,
stress-induced mutagenesis, and the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic
resistance. Using high-throughput sequencing technology (SOLiD RNA-Seq), we
analyzed the Burkholderia thailandensis global SOS response to the
fluoroquinolone antibiotic, ciprofloxacin (CIP), and the DNA-damaging chemical,
mitomycin C (MMC). We demonstrate that a B. thailandensis recA mutant (RU0643) is
∼4-fold more sensitive to CIP in contrast to the parental strain B. thailandensis
DW503. Our RNA-Seq results show that CIP and MMC treatment (P < 0.01) resulted in
the differential expression of 344 genes in B. thailandensis and 210 genes in
RU0643. Several genes associated with the SOS response were induced and include
lexA, uvrA, dnaE, dinB, recX, and recA. At the genome-wide level, we found an
overall decrease in gene expression, especially for genes involved in amino acid
and carbohydrate transport and metabolism, following both CIP and MMC exposure.
Interestingly, we observed the upregulation of several genes involved in
bacterial motility and enhanced transcription of a B. thailandensis genomic
island encoding a Siphoviridae bacteriophage designated E264. Using B.
thailandensis plaque assays and PCR with B. mallei ATCC 23344 as the host, we
demonstrate that CIP and MMC exposure in B. thailandensis DW503 induces the
transcription and translation of viable bacteriophage in a RecA-dependent manner.
This is the first report of the SOS response in Burkholderia spp. to DNA-damaging
agents. We have identified both common and unique adaptive responses of B.
thailandensis to chemical stress and DNA damage.
PMID: 23872555 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
103. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2015 Nov;47(1):130-40. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2015.08.035.
Epub 2015 Sep 2.
Wilkins LG(1), Clark ES(2), Farinelli L(3), Wedekind C(2), Fumagalli L(2).
(1)Department of Ecology and Evolution, Biophore, University of Lausanne, 1015
Lausanne, Switzerland. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
(2)Department of Ecology and Evolution, Biophore, University of Lausanne, 1015
Lausanne, Switzerland. (3)Fasteris SA, 1228 Plan-les-Ouates, Switzerland.
Most fishes produce free-living embryos that are exposed to environmental
stressors immediately following fertilization, including pathogenic
microorganisms. Initial immune protection of embryos involves the chorion, as a
protective barrier, and maternally-allocated antimicrobial compounds. At later
developmental stages, host-genetic effects influence susceptibility and
tolerance, suggesting a direct interaction between embryo genes and pathogens. So
far, only a few host genes could be identified that correlate with embryonic
survival under pathogen stress in salmonids. Here, we utilized high-throughput
RNA-sequencing in order to describe the transcriptional response of a non-model
fish, the Alpine whitefish Coregonus palaea, to infection, both in terms of host
genes that are likely manipulated by the pathogen, and those involved in an early
putative immune response. Embryos were produced in vitro, raised individually,
and exposed at the late-eyed stage to a virulent strain of the opportunistic fish
pathogen Pseudomonas fluorescens. The pseudomonad increased embryonic mortality
and affected gene expression substantially. For example, essential, upregulated
metabolic pathways in embryos under pathogen stress included ion binding
pathways, aminoacyl-tRNA-biosynthesis, and the production of arginine and
proline, most probably mediated by the pathogen for its proliferation. Most
prominently downregulated transcripts comprised the biosynthesis of unsaturated
fatty acids, the citrate cycle, and various isoforms of b-cell transcription
factors. These factors have been shown to play a significant role in host blood
cell differentiation and renewal. With regard to specific immune functions,
differentially expressed transcripts mapped to the complement cascade, MHC class
I and II, TNF-alpha, and T-cell differentiation proteins. The results of this
study reveal insights into how P. fluorescens impairs the development of
whitefish embryos and set a foundation for future studies investigating host
pathogen interactions in fish embryos.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
PMID: 26340848 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
104. DNA Res. 2014 Feb;21(1):1-13. doi: 10.1093/dnares/dst035. Epub 2013 Aug 13.
Zhao F(1), Yan C, Wang X, Yang Y, Wang G, Lee W, Xiang Y, Zhang Y.
(1)1Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of the Chinese
Academy of Sciences and Yunnan Province, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese
Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650223, China.
Amphibians occupy a key phylogenetic position in vertebrates and evolution of the
immune system. But, the resources of its transcriptome or genome are still little
now. Bombina maxima possess strong ability to survival in very harsh environment
with a more mature immune system. We obtained a comprehensive transcriptome by
RNA-sequencing technology. 14.3% of transcripts were identified to be
skin-specific genes, most of which were not isolated from skin secretion in
previous works or novel non-coding RNAs. 27.9% of transcripts were mapped into
242 predicted KEGG pathways and 6.16% of transcripts related to human disease and
cancer. Of 39 448 transcripts with the coding sequence, at least 1501 transcripts
(570 genes) related to the immune system process. The molecules of immune
signalling pathway were almost presented, several transcripts with high
expression in skin and stomach. Experiments showed that lipopolysaccharide or
bacteria challenge stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokine production and activation
of pro-inflammatory caspase-1. These frog's data can remarkably expand the
existing genome or transcriptome resources of amphibians, especially immunity
data. The entity of the data provides a valuable platform for further
investigation on more detailed immune response in B. maxima and a comparative
study with other amphibians.
PMID: 23942912 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]